Prevention of malaria in highly endemic countries relies largely on vector control through one of two main methods: insecticide treated (mosquito) nets (ITNs) and indoor residual (house) spraying (IRS). Both methods are known to be highly effective and current evidence suggests they are very similar in their impact. Given the increasing availability of resources for malaria control, the Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM) has set the ambitious target for 2010 of 80% protection of high-risk groups by a "locally appropriate" vector control measure. While few countries were near this objective in 2007, substantial progress has been made. Inevitably, this has been accompanied by vigorous debate as to the best way forward with regard to the different implementation models for ITNs, as well as the relative merits of ITNs versus IRS. While the implementation of IRS is typically through vertical programmes, available options for ITN implementation are more diverse. 

Joshua O Yukich, Christian Lengeler et al; 2008, 7:258 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-258